Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Sexual, Sexuality, And Sexuality - 2305 Words

As mentioned earlier, when a child is born, they are born with a sexual aim. That sexual aim is considered to be autoerotic and expresses itself in an infantile manner. This infantile sexuality, or autoerotic sexuality, is a masturbatory expression of sexuality. The child gets pleasure for themselves from themselves. This sexual aim is unconscious. The child doesn’t know why what they are doing feels pleasurable, but it instinctively brings them some form of pleasure, so they find comfort in it. This pleasure is the libido’s substitution for the normal genital release that isn’t yet organically or physiologically possible in the child. It is a passive pleasure where the child finds stimulation of the oral erotogenic zone by incorporating the object into itself. Freud says â€Å"the child does not make use of an extraneous body for his sucking, but prefers a part of his own skin because it is more convenient, because it makes him independent of the external world , which he is not yet able to control† (Three Essays 48). This pleasure presents itself in two forms. The first is â€Å"by a peculiar feelings of tension†¦character of unpleasure† and the second â€Å"consists in replacing the projected sensation of stimulation in the erotogenic zone by an external stimulus which removes that sensation by producing a feeling of satisfaction† (Three Essays 50). It is in this way that pleasure and unpleasure can both extinguish partially the normal sexual aim of the libido. The oral stage beginsShow MoreRelatedSexuality, Sexuality And Sexual Orientation1111 Words   |  5 PagesDate: 5/5/15 Human Sexuality Sexuality is something that seems to dominate a lot of the world we live in. It’s in our schools, at work, and especially in the mass media. The way your body develops and the way you feel and respond to others sexually creates your sexuality (â€Å"Sexuality and Sexual Orientation†, Youthoria). It can shape and affect people’s lives as well as our own. Sexuality can be influenced by culture, religion, media, friends and experiences. Some people are very sexual, while others experienceRead MoreSexuality : Human Sexuality, Sexual Orientation And Sexual Behavior1193 Words   |  5 Pages HUMAN SEXUALITY ReNata Shaw APUS: Human Sexuality Assignment 2 Resubmit Dr. Foster November 29, 2015 Human Sexuality Introduction Sexuality encompasses aspects in a person’s life that involves sex and gender identity, sexual orientation and sexual behavior. It encompasses the physical, social and psychological aspects of a person’s sexual behavior. It underpins what an individual is, affects the individual’s life wholesomely and is unique to each and every individualRead MoreSexual Sexuality And Sexual Practices933 Words   |  4 PagesSexual Normalcy Sexuality and sexual practices play a crucial part in how one defines oneself. The moral struggle between sinful or normal has a dramatic effect on how one views themselves, and one is perceived. When we can gain knowledge of how people process their own attitudes towards sexuality we can learn more about how humans tick. RUBIN’S RESEARCH Rubin’s prior research on the normality of certain sexual practices were the basis of this study. 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However, for both physical and mental health reasons, people should abstain from sexual exploration until after they reach sexual maturity. Although it is hard to define, I would suggest that for girls, this be measured by the onset of menarche, and for men, by testicular descent. Another matter to consider is: what constitutes sexual explorationRead MoreSexual Orientation, Gender, And Sexuality2049 Words   |  9 Pagesexpressions sexual orientation and sex are frequently utilized conversely, the two words have altogether distinctive definitions. One could contend that sex alludes to organic essentialism and the thought that we are who we are a result of our hereditary material. Then again, sex is connected with the social constructionist hypothesis, which contends that the way we are is reliant on our race, class, and sexuality. Since every individual is distinctive in their race, class, and sexuality, their sexRead MoreSexuality Is Defined By Sexual Orientation1538 Words   |  7 PagesSexuality is defined by â€Å"sexual orientation or preference† as well as the ability to understand the capacity of sexual desires. Same sex sexuality refers to sexual orientation also, but one’s preference towards someone of th eir same gender and the â€Å"erotic thoughts, feelings and behaviours† they assign to those of the same sex. Culturally, same sex sexuality is not always based on sexual ideals, acts that could be defined as being homosexual and appealing to those with same sex sexuality, oftenRead MoreSexuality : Teaching Sexual Orientation1844 Words   |  8 PagesSexuality has become a touchy subject due to the major increase in gays, lesbians, and transgender. The considerable amount of young students who are claiming these titles are an even more sensitive subject which has grasped society. When it comes to the youth of the nation every one becomes concerns. The way students are being taught is already in question, it brings more concern to society when people want students to start learning about sexuality in schools as well. I will review four main issuesRead MoreSex, Sexuality, And Sexual Health942 Words   |  4 PagesMany educators feel anxious or hesitant in address the topics of sex, sexuality, and sexual health especially in developing country. They may feel confused about what to teach and when to teach it. Many countries are now starting to teach the younger generation about sexual health. Although, North America and Europe have sexual education in their school; many developing countries lack sexual education which leads to high rate of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. SomeRead MoreHuman Sexuality And Sexual Orientation1544 Words   |  7 Pagesand controversy as sexual orientation. In cultures and societies today, as well as in the past, there is usually an emphasis on a specific orientation as a norm, and typically heterosexuality is perceived as such. This in turn generates a wide range of reaction to homosexuality, from its being seen as â€Å"unnatural† in moral terms, to ideas of it as threatening the stability of a culture. In recent years, however, new perspectives are emerging which strongly support t hat sexual orientation is by no

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Brief Note On Copyright And Remix Culture - 1777 Words

How to Not Follow Copyright Law: An Exploratory Essay on Copyright and Remix Culture As time goes by, the rate at which art changes increases at a seemly exponential rate. Our culture has more ways than ever to publish and distribute the things we make, and with the rise of the internet we can reach any audience with a Wi-Fi connection. This digital hyper-connectivity has led many artists to create new forms of art, some of which have gone on to start trends and cultures. One of these cultures that has become a significant part of online media is Remix Culture. The idea of taking someone else’s art and making it your own is embraced and cherished by some, and detested by others. As this genre of media has grown over the years, the line between what is and isn’t a remix has drastically blurred. Some will spend hours upon hours making a song sound completely different from its original counterpart, while others will simply chop it up and call it their own. Though laws were once effective when dealing with copyright infringement, the rate art has grown has significantly surpassed the rate at which these laws have changed. People are beginning to monetize their remixes in various ways, creating much controversy surrounding who should be getting paid, or if anyone should get paid at all. As artists, it is important to know what these laws are exactly, so we can either abide by them or find our own workarounds. As soon as a work is created in a tangible, fixed form, it is

Threats Independence and Possible Remedies

Question: Discuss about the Threats Independence and Possible Remedies. Answer: Introduction The company is require from the auditor to promote the business of the company in the seminar where number of investors comes and if the auditor promotes the business, the company will get more investment from the different persons coming in the seminar. The company Chief of the management CEO also states that if the auditor thinks of denying this act, there may be high chances that the company will not continue with the same auditor in next year. This situation creates the financial insecurity in the auditor minds and threats of intimidation have been created in this situation by the executives of the company. This threat shows that undue influential power has been creating on the auditor acts by management of the company which can spoil the objectivity of the auditor. The assessment of the threat can do with altitude of objectivity drop by the auditor in performance of the promotional activity (Edwin, 2015). The company is planning to give free holiday package of 14 days for the auditor and four members of the family of the auditor. The holiday package also includes the ticketing, food, accommodation expenses of the auditor and family members. The company has given this advantage to the auditor in consideration of smooth audit for the year 2015 without any extra queries from the auditor. The company wants to create the threat of Self Interest in this particular case as the auditor may feel of ignoring the certain key matters in making favor to the management of the company for giving free gift voucher to the auditor. The risk in this case can be estimated by the intensity of the self interest created in the minds of auditor for returning favor to the management of the LTH Company (Barizah, 2016). Personal Relation of Auditor The auditor Michael has personally related with the Chief Finance Controller of the LTH Company. The father of the audit team manner is the main person in the finance function of the company and wholly responsible for the preparation and presentation of the financial statements of the LTH Company. There is threat of Familiarity has been identified in this case. The auditor or the management officer can take advantage of this relationship by hiding some key financial matters in audit report or in the financial statements. The risk can be apprised by the intensity of the integrity lost by the auditor along with professional due care not followed by auditor (UK, 2013). The accounting and consultancy team member of the audit firm has been appointed as assurance team member to do the audit of the same client LTH. The member also informed that she has very good relationship with the employees of the company and she is very happy to go again in the company. The accounting and tax entries has been done by her before one month. There is threat of Self Review present in this situation where the audit has to assess her own work by doing audit of her work. The auditor may not done the detailed testing of the work done by her as she has the impression that work done was done by her is fully correct and she does not require to recheck the same. The threat can be appraised in this situation with altitude of the services done by the same person for audit and accounting and also the intensity of not following the professional due care at the time audit by audit staff (Parker, 2015). Shelter for Auditor from Recognized Threates Corporation Act, 2001 and Australian Auditing Standards suggest the shelter measures which an auditor should apply to prevent his independence while doing reporting about the company. The auditor has following protective measures to cover the threats and reduces their impact on the reporting: Protection as per Engagement Letter- The engagement letter of the auditor which contains the terms and conditions and responsibilities of the auditor and management helps the auditor to safeguard him from the threats which can spoil independence. These includes: Detailed bifurcation of scope of work in relation to the audit and non audit services helps the auditor to appoint different personnel for doing these two services. The full disclosures of the fees and terms of the engagement creating a satisfaction in the minds of the auditor about the financial security making him to do work more professionally with full professional competence and due care. Disclosure of interest in the company or relations with officers of the company in the engagement letter makes the auditor free from the liability for damages and with free mind auditor can do audit. Protection as Auditing Standards and Laws The different auditing standards and acts and statutes provides the auditor, the measures to prevent integrity and objectivity of the auditor. These includes: Peer review of the work of the auditor to be done after certain intervals to assess any deficiency is there in the audit procedures so that in future risk can be avoided The work should be done by using the professional skepticism as laid in the ethical auditing principles Complaint forums for auditor if the client is making undue influence on the auditor for not reporting certain things. Introduction of ASA 701, where the auditor has power to save himself by reporting any suspicious matter as key audit matter in his report (Livine, 2015). Risks In Business Risks has been defined as the potentiality or probability of having the happening of an uncertain event which can either lead to the massive losses or may either lead to profits. Because of the presences of this definition the risk has been defined as an integral and the inherent part of every business. It may be either manufacturing business or trading business or even the business of providing consultancy business. Therefore, every business men before undertaking any business shall consider the type of risks associated with the business. In the given situation the Company Mining Supplies limited have been purchasing from the overseas suppliers United States of America, United Kingdom and China since the formation of the company and many risks have been faced by the company since then but still have been working but from the auditor point of view following are the major business risks on which the company shall rethink and develop the corrective measures and procedures: Foreign Currency Exposure The Company has been purchasing from the overseas suppliers from United States of America, United Kingdom and China. In case of all the three suppliers the company has been facing the major risk of currency exposure. It is because of the fact that the exchange rate keep on fluctuating on the daily basis and sometimes it goes on such higher level which can even erode the profit margins of the company (Imrie, 2011). In the global financial crisis starting from the year 2009, many businesses have come down to closure of their companies only because of the fact of fluctuations in the currency exchange rate. Lack of Warranty to the Customers The Company has been selling the goods to the consumers on the premise that there will be two year warranty for any spare parts of the equipment but has not provided the warranty for the main equipment which is being sold to the customers (EY, 2016). It is because of the fact that the company itself is not receiving the same from the suppliers located at United States of America, United Kingdom and China. Due to this the company may face the situation of the severe loss of customers and reputation in the market and in case in order to retain the customers the company may provide for immediate replacement of the equipment in case any manufacturing defect comes and thus leading to losses to the company. Thus, the above two business risks shall be considered by the auditor while making or drafting the audit for the financial year ending 2015. Following two audit risks has been defined for each business risk identified: Control Risk This risk has been defined in the first part of foreign currency exposure. It will remain in the system of the company because of the fact that the foreign currency exposure cannot be minimized because of the fact that the company has been purchasing from the suppliers located at the different parts of the world. The same shall be considered by the auditor in planning the audit and shall prepare the audit accordingly. Secondly, the hedging procedures shall be checked as the part of audit of any done by the company. The account balances that have been affected by this kind of risk is foreign exchange fluctuation account, suppliers account and purchase account. (Long, 2015). Inherent Risk - This has been identified in the second part of the business risks which details with the lack of warranty for the main equipment. The company shall provide the warranty to the customers otherwise the business will get closed as the customers will lose faith in the company. It has been referred to as the inherent risk because of the fact that the said default is inherent in the nature of business and it cannot be mitigated. The account balances that may be affected by these risks are provision for warranty, Warranty cost and replacement cost and the value of closing stock as on date. (Becker, 2015) References Barizah N, (2016), Threats to Auditor Independence, available at https://www.academia.edu/260449/Threats_to_Auditor_Independence accessed on27/04/2017. Edwin M, (2015), Analysis of Threats to Auditor Independence and Available Safeguards against those threats, available at https://www.academia.edu/9406967/THREATS_TO_AUDITORS_INDEPENDENCE accessed on 26/04/2017 Livine G, (2015), Threats to Auditor Independence and Possible Remedies, available on https://www.financepractitioner.com/auditing-best-practice/threats-to-auditor-independence-and-possible-remedies?full accessed on 27/04/2017. Parker A, (2015), 6 Key Threat to Auditor Independence, available on https://www.intheblack.com/articles/2015/01/06/6-key-threats-to-auditor-independence accessed on 27/04/2017. UK Essays, (2013), Threat To Auditor Independence Accounting Essay. Available at https://www.uniassignment.com/essay-samples/accounting/threat-to-auditor-independence-accounting-essay.php?cref=1 Accessed on 26/04/2017 Becker E, (2015), Audit Risk vs. Business Risk, available at https://www.osyb.com/blog/small-business/audit-risk-vs-business-risk/ accessed on 21/05/2017 EY, (2016), Top 10 Business Risks, available at https://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-business-risks-in-mining-and-metals-2016-2017/%24FILE/EY-business-risks-in-mining-and-metals-2016-2017.pdf accessed on 21/05/2017 Imrie B, (2011), Business Risks facing the Mining Industry, available at https://www.in.kpmg.com/SecureData/ACI/Files/Top_20_Risks_the_Mining_Industry.pdf accessed at 21/05/2017

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Sydney symphony orchestra Essay Example

Sydney symphony orchestra Essay Through segmenting the Coos general environment framework, and conducting an environmental analysis outlining Porters five forces model of competition an educated prediction Is concluded. The general environment Is a collection of dimensions influencing an industry and the firms within it (Hanson et al, 2014 p. 38). These dimension are made up of the Demographic, Economic, Political, Socio-cultural, Technological and Global, all of which heavily impact the SO. The political dimension of the SO is strongly correlated with the large amount of support by the government through heavy funding. The economic environment of SO Is positive, having Hanson et al. 2014 p. 421). Apart from government funding, 65% of the revenue earned by the SO was generated through profits. The Socio-cultural and demographic dimensions on the other hand, are inevitably linked with the location of Sydney and its unique features. Sydney is often regarded as one of the most livable cities in the world possessing a large population of 4. 5 million. The residents are economically well off, enjoying a high per capita Income with a large middle class who are able to afford expensive Inner city housing. A ticket to a SO concert Is ricer between $50 and $71, and is considered affordable for many. Technology another segment of the general environment, has heavily impacted the profitability of music with websites such as Youth and Pirate Bay offering free music on demand. Thus, reducing the incentive for people to pay for live concerts, as recorded music is free and readily available. However, technology has opened up new mediums in which the SO can utilities to reach larger audiences. We will write a custom essay sample on Sydney symphony orchestra specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sydney symphony orchestra specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sydney symphony orchestra specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Porters five forces model of competition provides additional Insight Into the music Industry, contributing to the verbal understanding of the future prospects for the SO. This model allows long- term profitability of any industry to be understood through the diagnostics of five forces (Porter, 1 998, p. 14). Firstly, new entrants pose threats to existing market share, therefore product differentiation is a vital tool, which evidently is utilized by the SO as they only employ the very best first-rate musicians. In the music Industry, it Is important to also consider substitute products such as live pop and rock concerts, existing to music at home, online music videos, and many other forms of replacement, which may be a cheaper option to attending the orchestra. Additionally, the power of suppliers also affects the music industry as an increase in costs such as venue and instruments may reduce profitability. Another key factor is the degree of rivalry among firms. In this industry, it is the rivalry between the SO and other et al. (201 1), intense rivalries are common when an industry has many companies. As there are numerous chamber groups in Sydney that supply the same type of music s the SO, it can be argued that the intensity of rivalry strong within this industry. Buyers in the music industry can easily access different types of live music without incurring high switching costs. On the contrary, the SO are renowned for their quality and the unique experience provided is not considered easily substitutable. When analyzing the general environment and the industry surrounding the SO a strong survival in the future is expected. This is evidently portrayed, through a strong general environment, particularly, a sturdy economic position. However, technological advancements pose a threat to the music industry as a whole, potentially having a negative impact on the profitability of the SO in the future. However, technological development may provide opportunities the SO can utilities. When exploring Porters five forces model of competition, a competitive industry sector is elucidated. This is as a result of the numerous chamber orchestras and other live performers in Sydney. Also, it is clear, the bargaining power of buyers is relatively strong.

Monday, March 16, 2020

Mothers are better parents Essays

Mothers are better parents Essays Mothers are better parents Essay Mothers are better parents Essay Mothers are more attuned Both parents can be equally good parents but overall, I do think mothers are a lot more attuned and responsive. It makes sense because they bear the child during pregnancy for nine months in their bodies! So you certainly feel the child already so close on that level. Something a father can never have and get. The mother knows the temperament of the baby even before It Is born. After the baby Is born she spends all day and night feeding, changing diaper, putting baby to sleep, playing tit baby. So there is more experience and learning about baby that helps Inform mom about how to raise this particular child. Like what works what dont. What the child Likes and dont like. Also women are generally more relationship and emotionally oriented. This helps with providing emotional support and teaching social skills to child. Women also have a biological Instinct. Fathers can sleep through a crying baby but mothers dont. I strongly believe that mothers are better than fathers because they are more ND spend more time with the kids and when the mothers hatch you like an egg you would know they love you more than anyone in the world they know how to look after you and protect you from other people by defeating. In conclusion mothers are better because they are looking after you gently not like the fathers just taking after you and Just go run off someone else leaving you out alone with no one else wit you and when your parents get divorced your mum would look after you way better than father .

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Can Human-Animal Chimeras Aid Medical Researches

Can Human-Animal Chimeras Aid Medical Researches Chapter 1 The Science behind the Biotechnology Chimeras rely on stem cells and their ability to differentiate into the necessary cells needed by the body. It is this feature of stem cells that allow scientist to culture tissue samples and eventually produce transplantable organs. The procuration of stem cells is the subject of a controversial argument as the methodologies of some variations raises several moral and ethical issues. Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) As the name suggests, this form of stem cells are derived from human embryos. Contrary to popular belief, these cells are not obtained from eggs fertilised inside a womans body; the embryos are usually donated for research purposes by In Vitro Fertilisation Clinics, with the consent of the donors. The embryos are then suspended in a culture medium ,mirroring similar conditions to that of a mothers womb, allowing the embryo to divide into a mass of cells known as the blastocyst. The cells within the blastocyst are usually referred to as totipotent stem cells. It is here that the first ethical issue arises. The beginning of life is said to be conception or fertilisation therefore this method of obtaining stem cells can be considered as taking a life without its consent. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2016) Another limitation of hESCs includes carcinogenic risk when the culture medium is altered in order to induce differentiation of stem cells to form specialised cells such as: heart cells, lungs cells, liver cells and nerve cells. If the wrong mix of proteins or hormones are added to the stem cells theres a potential risk of mutation of DNA resulting in the production of cancerous or faulty cells. Conversely, hESCs are more accepted in the scientific community as the production of it can be done at lower cost with much more efficient differentiation and the cells produced are within a suitable HLA spectrum. [1] (Pappas, 2008) Parthenote Stem Cells It is possible however to bypass the ethical and moral issues that hESCs present, as these issues only arise if the cell is post-fertilisation. Therefore, if stem cells are extracted from an unfertilised egg, then arguably life which begins at conception or fertilisation, has not yet begun, making the use of the stem cells less controversial. However, the ethical implications have not been bypassed altogether, as it can still be argued that stem cells from unfertilised eggs do still have the potential to make a living individual. Parthenogenesis[2] allows for the egg cell to be activated without the need for a sperm. Parthenogenetic embryos will develop to the blastocyst stage and so can serve as a source of embryonic stem cells. Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cells (pESCs) have been shown to have the properties of self-renewal and the capacity to generate cell derivatives from the three germ layers, confirmed by contributions to chimeric animals (Department of Animal Science, Michig an State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA, 2006) Induced Pluripotent stem cells The process behind iPSCs was a big medical breakthrough as it allowed somatic (body) cells to be reprogrammed into regenerative cells. The formation of iPSCs require the donor to undergo shave or punch biopsies, this procedure can be done under local anesthetic and is minimally invasive so the procuration of the adult cells poses no moral or ethical predicaments. The induction of pluripotency in adult somatic cells via proteins, will produce genetical and immune-histocompatibility matches thus, lowering the chance of rejection (if used for transplantation), this also reduces the need for the patient to take immunosuppressant which can result in a compromised immune response. But this form of stem cells comes with its disadvantages, as it is a new concept the cost of production is high. Therefore this process in its current state of development is economically viable for a large population size. Furthermore, the mechanisms behind how the reprogramming factors work are unknown, this pr esents the chances of mutagenesis[3], oncogene activation risk[4], and retroviral gene delivery[5] (Pappas, 2008) Chapter 2 Potential Uses of Animal-Human Chimeras in Therapeutics Vaccinations As of 2015, there are 36.7 million people living with HIV as per WHO and UNAIDS. (WHO, 2016). The field of vaccines for diseases such as Hepatitis-B and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) have taken a heavy toll in developing countries and have faced major failures. In the hopes of improving the current situation. Human-animal chimeras, developed with a humanized immune system could be useful to study infectious diseases, including many neglected diseases. These would also serve as an important tool for the efficient testing of new vaccine candidates to streamline promising candidates for further trials in humans. (Bhan, et al., 2010). Human hematopoietic stem cells, or in laymans terms, bone marrow cells, have the unique capacity of engrafting, greatly expanding, and repopulating immunodeficient mice, with virtually all different types of human immune cells; as shown by the image above. Humanized mouse models are produced via transplantation of CD34+ stem cells and/or implantation of human tissue into immunodeficient mice. Depending on whether tissue or CD34+ cells are used and the strain of mouse, this results in mice which have a part or a complete human immune system. (Garcia, 2016) This xenografted[6] mouse is then used as a disease model[7]. This allows scientists to better understand the mechanisms behind the disease, which results in a more efficient treatment plan for those who suffer from. Hepatitis-B. Another disease model being used are primates, these are considered to be the most accurate as we share a common ancestor. Additionally, primates have the closest metabolic conditions to humans. When this model was injected with HIV-1 (via IV), HIV-2 (via vagina) and SIV (via rectum) the results were advantageous as they provided useful information for vaccine and therapeutic studies. However, the cost of producing this model is very high and raises many moral and ethical concerns; furthermore, despite having some genetic similarities, primates do have different cellular and molecular markers and the time and course of infection could vary. Chimeras are also benefiting the treatment of Japanese encephalitis. This disease is a type of viral brain infection thats spread through mosquito bites, commonly found in South-East Asia. Although theres no cure for Japanese encephalitis, it can be prevented through vaccination, which is usually only available privately (NHS, 2016). A recently developed vaccine, which is an animal-human chimera which is a mouse brain-derived, inactivated JE vaccine (MBV). In order to evaluate its efficacy case controlled studies were carried out. A randomized double-blinded study conducted in northern Thailand, using JE MBV produced in Thailand, yielded an overall effectiveness of 91%. Another trial in Taiwan revealed an effectiveness of approximately 85% when two or more doses were administered. The effectiveness of the JE vaccine in Northern Vietnam was 92.9% efficacious. (Marks, et al., 2012). Control disease progression Another therapeutic use of animal-human chimeras is the development of drugs to aid in the treatment of known diseases.The drug called Rituximab, is a chimeric antibody which means it contains portions of both human and mouse antibodies mixed together. The drug was licensed in 1997 for the treatment of NHL (Non-Hodgkins lymphoma)-a form of cancer which causes B-cells to mutate and divide abnormally. The drug targets the CD20 receptor on B-cells as this receptor is located on the surface of the cell and it doesnt mutate, move inside the cell or fall off in the life cycle of the B-cell. The drug contains the variable domain of the mouse antibody, the portion that specifically binds CD20, along with the constant domain of human antibody, the portion that recruits other components of the immune system to the target-the B-cells and so after it is administered, and a large number of tumour cells are immediately destroyed and eliminated from the body. Rituximab is also used to treat advanced rheumatoid arthritis and it has also been part of anti-rejection treatments for kidney transplants (both involve B cells). The disadvantage only that the mouse antibody was unsuitable for direct use in humans and clinical trial results varied, likely due to the differing sizes of tumors between the patients, (Speaking of Research, 2017) Chapter 3 Potential Uses of Animal-Human Chimeras in Surgery The demand for organ transplantation has rapidly increased all over the world due to the increased incidence of vital organ failure. However, the unavailability of adequate organs for transplantation procedures to meet this growing demand has resulted in a major organ crisis. In 2014, 429 patients died while on the waiting list for an organ transplant- thats up to 3 patients a day. (Knapton, 2015). Currently, the government plan on changing the organ donation system to an opt out system, which hopes to promote organ donation and increase the availability of organs. The opt-out system presumes the donors consent unless the individual expresses a refusal to become a potential donor- allowing the donor to make a free choice (Abouna, 2008). As well as increasing obtainability of organs, it also increases the likelihood of more organs found within a suitable HLA spectrum. (Department of Health and Social Care and Cabinet Office, 2017). But it can be argued that this system of obtaining organs is seen as unfair as majority of organ donors must be recently deceased (excluding kidney donors) therefore the longevity of one persons life is at the cause of anothers death. (World Health Organisation, 2005) To prevent this choice being made, alternative solutions are being developed in order to aid the organ crisis-one of them being animal-human chimeras. Current research on stem cells have shown that they can differentiate into different cell types but cannot effectively produce usable tissues and organs as a culture medium cannot replicate the growth of an organ in a body. A recent breakthrough by the (Salk Institute of Biological Research, 2017) shows a pig-human chimera, which would be capable of making human organs. The research began by creating an interspecies chimera[8] consisting of a rat and mouse. They used a gene editing technology known as CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) to turn off the gene that makes the pancreas. They then inserted rat iPSCs which contained a pancreas gene into the mouse embryo. The result, when implanted into surrogate mouse mothers, was a fully developed mouse with a growing rat pancreas. This concept was then mirrored using pigs embryos and human stem cells; as pigs have similar organ sizes and developmental timescales as humans. Although this experiment had to be halted at 4 weeks of development due to ethical issues and the lack of consent- as the experiment was designed to prove it was possible, not to produce a human organ-we can safely assume that, if the development of the pig was allowed to continue, the pig would have a whole human organ inside it. Theoretically, this concept can then be implemented, producing specific human organs, eliminating the wait for a human donor and reducing the risk of organ rejection. Chapter 4 Potential Uses of Animal-Human Chimeras in Disease Modelling Scientific research is not always accepted as they require the use of controversial methods to obtain the necessary results. The methodologies behind creating chimeras have ethical and moral dilemmas primarily due to the use of animals. There is a large emphasis on animal welfare, although the use of animals as chimeras or in general medical research is considered very valuable as they help the medical community to better under the effects of treatments (drugs or otherwise) on living organisms. The matter still finds itself to be the subject of a very heated debate; as those opposing the use of animals animal rights extremists and anti-vivisectionist groups-believe that animal experimentation is unnecessary and cruel regardless of its benefits ergo the opposition want total abolition of animal research and if the majority supports this view then there will be severe consequences for scientific research. (Festing Wilkinson, 2007) On the other hand, the UK has gone further than most countries in regards to the ethical framework by introducing the Animals (Scientific Procedure) Act 1986 which regulates the use of animal research. Along with this, there is more and more public awareness as polls run by Ipsos MORI state that in 2005 64% of the population agreed with the use of animals in research if the research objectives are important and the animals experience minimal suffering and all alternatives are considered. (Department for Business Freeman, 2014) Another bioethical view that must be considered is `whether we treat the chimeras as animals or human? this arises as some chimeras require the altering of cognitive capacities. The chimeras are to be used to develop a better understanding of diseases such as Parkinsons and Dementia which affect 850 000 people every year (Anon., 2014) Unfortunately, the research is very slow due to moral views as some people regard this form experimentation a violation of human dignity and the order of nature as well as, the initial disagreement of using chimeras in the first place. (Hermern, 2015) Opportunely, there is some support for the use of animal-human chimeras as previous medical techniques that are widely accepted today allow the use of porcine, bovine and equine biological heart valves are implanted in those with cardiac valve dysfunction. Moreover, insulin extracted from porcine pancreas is routinely used with those with diabetes. And so, the prospect of a pig carrying a pancreas or liver of human origin should be justifiable. (Bourret, et al., 2016) Alternatives A lesser conventional view is the alternatives to chimeras, these methods do not require the use of animals to carry out medical research, which hopefully, should eliminate bioethical arguments. The issue that arises with this is the efficiency and viability of the results. The alternatives to chimeras include cell cultures, human tissues and computer models. Almost all cell types can be recreated in laboratory conditions and these can be coaxed to grow into 3D structures- miniature organs. Cell cultures have also been used to create `organs-on-chips which can be used to study disease mechanisms, as well as, drug metabolism. This form biotechnology has already managed to mimic the heart, lungs and kidneys. The goal is to be able to this for all organ systems. The idea is already aided in the development in the production of vaccines, and drug testing on top of aided research in the study of cancers, sepsis and AIDS. Human tissues can be donated by both healthy and diseased volunteers through surgeries such as biopsies, cosmetic surgery and transplants or via post mortem- such as brain tissue from a patient with Multiple Sclerosis to help better understand a large variety of diseases furthermore the tissues can make more effective models than through chimeras as they will contain only human DNA thus providing a more relevant way of studying human biology. Finally, computer models can be used to create virtual experiments based on existing information. Models of the musculoskeletal systems, heart, lungs etc. already exist. Inopportunely, this method isnt as effective as testing in vivo as the concept is very theoretical. (Anon., n.d.)

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Critical Skills of Senior Executive Assistants Case Study

Critical Skills of Senior Executive Assistants - Case Study Example Most employers were from colleges, universities and other academic institutions, with average earnings of $44680. Becoming an executive assistant one requires to have some educational credentials to succeed in the dynamic business market. Some common courses include typing, computer applications, business law, records and information management, office administration and business communication. Table of Contents 2 parts Advertisement done with log for the financial review in Sydney and a case study report 1 Executive summary 1 Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Critical Skills of Senior Executive Assistants 3 Writing Skills 3 Project Management Skills 4 Financial Skills 5 Benefits, salary, and salary packaging options 6 Salary Trends 6 Conclusion 7 Bibliography 9 Introduction An executive assistant plays a crucial role in an organisation. In the ever changing business environment, it is the executive assistant’s job to assist the key decision maker to stay focused, effective a nd a better leader. The key skills of this position are excellent communication, creativity and ability to work independently (Yukl, 1998; Zeng, 2011, pp 2 –93; Priem, 1994, pp 421–437). ... cruit an office manager, this position has three direct officers; the receptionist and two administrative staff (Scarborough, & Zimmerer,2006;Shimek & Wen,2008). Critical Skills of Senior Executive Assistants In the ever changing office environment, the critical skills required of an effective senior executive assistant is communication. How the incumbent interacts with peers and other decision makers is paramount on how ideas exchange across the organisation. Other vital skills are interpersonal effectiveness, project management skills, financial planning abilities, and effective writing skills (Torrington & Hall, 2004, pp. 205; Drew, 2007, pp359-369). Writing Skills Effective writing skills are particularly essential for an office manager to put the right words on paper quickly. Therefore, they must be able to communicate more clearly, concisely and persuasively. Words matter and an effective office assistant must learn, develop and enhance how to use them. The key areas that requi re effective principle of writing are: successful correspondence, message shaping, writing to the point, avoiding writing traps, diplomacy and politics, refining the writing and managing minutes in a meeting (Eije ,2006; Eisenhardt,1989, pp 57-7; Fan, Wong, & Zhang,2007, pp 330-357). Communication Skills An outstanding executive assistant should possess soft skills and abilities to maximise appropriate communication skills for personal and professional potential. The positive traits needed include; self awareness, personal openness, conflict handling, frustration and stress control, assertiveness and making commitments to development. Appropriate communication skills are key to developing a positive image, giving and receiving feedback, presenting ideas with confidence and clarity.